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District Of Columbia, United States
Government : Military
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I.  ***********

This publication *********** a Broad Agency (BAA), as contemplated in Federal ********** (FAR) 6.102(d)(2).  A formal Request for ********* (RFP), and/or additional *********** ********* this will not be issued or further **********  This will remain open for approximately one year from the date of publication or until extended or replaced by a successor BAA. Initial responses to this must be in the form of White Papers.  ********* shall be requested only from those offerors selected as a result of the scientific review of the White Papers made in accordance with the evaluation criteria specified herein. White Papers may be submitted any time during this period.  Awards may take the form of contracts, cooperative agreements, or other transactions agreements.


The Naval Sea Systems Command (NAVSEA) will not issue paper copies of this .  NAVSEA reserves the right to select for proposal submission all, some, or none from among the white papers submitted in response to this .  For those who are requested to submit *********, NAVSEA reserves the right to award all, some, or none of the ********* received under this BAA. NAVSEA provides no funding for direct reimbursement of white paper or proposal development costs.  Technical and cost ********* (or any other material) submitted in response to this BAA will not be returned.  It is the policy of NAVSEA to treat all white papers and ********* as competition sensitive *********** and to disclose their contents only for the purposes of evaluation.


White papers submitted under N00024-10-R-4215 that have not resulted in a request for a proposal are hereby considered closed-out and no further action will be taken on them.  Unsuccessful offerors under N00024-10-R-4215 are encouraged to review this BAA for relevance and resubmit if the technology proposed meets the criteria below.


II.  GENERAL ***********



Naval Sea Systems Command (NAVSEA)

1333 Isaac Hull Ave SE

Washington, DC 20376



Research and Development of Naval Power and Energy Systems



This will remain open through the response date indicated or until extended or replaced by a successor BAA.  White Papers may be submitted any time during this period.





NAVSEA, on behalf of the Electric Ships Office (PMS 320, organizationally a part of the Program Executive Office - Ships) is interested in White Papers for long and short term Research and Development (R&D) projects that offer potential for advancement and improvements in current and future shipboard electric power and energy systems at the major component, subsystem and system level.  The mission of PMS 320 is to develop and provide smaller, simpler, more affordable, and more capable ship power systems to the Navy by defining open architectures, developing common components, and focusing Navy, industry, and academia investments.  PMS 320 will provide leadership of the developments identified as part of this BAA, will direct the transition of associated technologies developed by the Office of Naval Research (ONR), and will manage the technology portfolio represented by Program Element (PE) 0603573N (Advanced Surface Machinery Systems) for transition into existing and future Navy ships. 



Naval power and energy systems are described in detail in the 2019 Naval Power and Energy Systems Technology Development Roadmap (NPES TDR).  The NPES TDR focuses and aligns the power system investments for the Navy, Defense Department, industry and academia to guide future research and development investments to enable the Navy to leverage these investments to meet its future needs more affordably.  Included in the NPES TDR are specific recommendations and opportunities for near, mid and long term investments, with a renewed focus on energy management.  These opportunities range from an energy magazine to support advanced weapons and sensors to the development of an Integrated Power and Energy System (IPES). The NPES TDR aligns electric power system developments with war fighter needs and enables capability-based budgeting.  The NPES TDR is responding to the emerging needs of the Navy, and while the plan is specific in its recommendations, it is inherently flexible enough to adapt to the changing requirements and threats that may influence the 30-year ship plan.  The first section of the roadmap establishes why NPES are a critical part of the kill chain based on the capabilities desired by the Navy in the near term, as well as supporting future platforms in the Navy's 30-year shipbuilding plan. The second section of the roadmap presents power and energy requirements that are derived from mission systems necessary to support future warfighting needs.  The third section describes required initiatives based on capabilities and the projected electrical requirements of the future ships.



The areas of focus for this BAA include, but are not limited to, the "FYDP/NEAR-TERM" activities as described throughout the NPES TDR; the analysis, development, risk reduction and demonstration of future shipboard (both manned and unmanned) electric power systems and components, emphasizing shipboard power generation, electric propulsion, power conversion, energy storage, distribution and control; power quality, continuity, and system stability; electric power system and component level modeling and simulation; energy storage technologies; electrical system survivability; and power system simplicity, upgradeability, flexibility,  and ruggedness.  The Integrated Power and Energy System (IPES) architecture provides the framework for partitioning the equipment and software into modules and defines functional elements and the power/control and *********** relationships between them.  For power generation, high power distribution, propulsion, and large loads, the architecture includes Medium Voltage AC power (with emphasis on affordability), and Medium Voltage DC power (with emphasis on power density and fault management).  For ship service electrical loads, the architecture includes zonal electrical distribution which may be either AC or DC, depending upon the specific application.  Also of particular interest are technologies that result in significant energy efficiency, power density improvements and/or carbon footprint improvements over existing propulsion and power system technologies.  The NPES TDR partitions the power system in to functional areas that include the following.



Energy storage modules may support short duration to long duration energy storage applications, which utilize a combination of technologies to minimize power quality and continuity impacts across the system.  For the short duration energy storage applications, the module should provide hold-up power to uninterruptible loads for fault clearing and transient isolation, as well as load leveling for pulse power loads. For the mid duration, the module should provide up to approximately 3MW (100 - 150 kW-hr) of standby power for pulse power loads while also providing continuity of operations for a subset of equipment between uninterruptible and full ship's load (including emergency power generation starting in a dark ship condition).  For long duration applications, energy storage modules should provide the required power as an emergency backup system or to provide increased stealth for specialty equipment. The required duration for this type of application may extend up to days or longer, and may be intermittent or continuous.  A number of energy storage technologies for future ship applications are of interest to the Navy, including various electrochemical, capacitor-based, or rotating discussed below:


a. Capacitor:  Electrochemical capacitor improvements continue to focus on improving energy density while maintaining inherently high-power density. Design improvements include development and integration of higher temperature films, advanced electrolytes, advanced electrode materials, and minimizing equivalent series resistance (ESR).


b. Rotating: The Navy has interest in the investment from the transportation industry in flywheel systems that can handle gyroscopic forces continues to support flywheel usage in commercial rail and ground transportation.  Additional factors of interest to the Navy include safety, recharge/discharge rates, ship motion impacts, environmental impacts and control.


c. Electrochemical: Factors of interest to the Navy with respect to electrochemical energy storage include the ability to maintain state of charge when not in use; change in voltage versus state of charge; charge and discharge capability; the temporary or permanent loss of capacity due to repeated shallow discharges; the ability to shallow charge and discharge or partially charge intermittently during a discharge; battery life considerations such as service-life, cycle life, and shelf-life; off-gas properties that affect the level of ventilation and associated auxiliary systems; and safety enhancements to support qualification for use onboard US Navy ships. 


Near term Navy interests are in the area of common and scalable hardware and software elements which enable advanced weapons and sensors and in understanding the sizing algorithms for how to optimize energy storage sizing against various competing system requirements (short duration/high power vs. long duration/low power, for example.  The specific design issues to be considered include reliability, volumetric and gravimetric power and energy densities, differentiating between high levels of stored energy and high energy density.  The relevant *********** required for characterizing technology performance include: Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of components and systems; production capability; safety evaluation and qualifications performed on relevant subsystems or components (any hazard analyses of systems designs as relevant to notional applications); other military application of the devices; energy storage management system approach; thermal characteristics, constraints, and cooling requirements; auxiliary requirements (load); device impedance (heat generation characteristics); and device efficiency (discharge/recharge).



Industry continues to drive towards increased power density, increased efficiency, higher switching frequencies, and refined topologies with associated control schemes. Innovation in power conversion from the development and implementation of wide-bandgap devices, such as Silicon Carbide (SiC), promise reduction in losses many times over Silicon. The use of high frequency transformers can provide galvanic isolation with reduced size and weight compared to traditional transformers. Advances in cooling methods will be required to handle larger heat loads associated with higher power operation. 


A typical Navy power conversion module might consist of a solid state power converter and/or a transformer.  Advanced topologies and technologies, such as the application of wide band gap devices, are of particular interest.  Navy interests are in the area of innovative approaches to address converting high voltage AC/DC to 1000 VDC with power levels on the order of 3MW or larger.  The specific design issues to be considered include modularity, open architecture (focusing on future power system flexibility and the ability of a conversion module within a ship's power system to be replaced/ upgraded in support of lifecycle mission system upgrades), reliability, cost, and conversion efficiency.  Areas of interest include more power-dense converters supporting advanced mission sys­tems and prototyping of full scale conversion based on second generation wide-bandgap devices.



Power distribution typically consists of bus duct/ bus pipe, cables, connections, switchgear and fault protection equipment, load centers, and other hardware necessary to deliver power from generators to loads. Industry has used medium voltage DC (MVDC) transmission as a method to reduce losses across long distances. Complementarily, Industry is developing MVDC circuit protection for use in MVDC transmission variants of approximately 50, 100, and 150 megawatts (MW) at transmission voltages of 20 to 50 kVDC. Analysis includes modeling and simulation to determine methods for assessing the benefits of DC vs AC undersea transmission and distribution systems for offshore oil and gas.   Industry and academia continue to invest resources in advanced conductors that have applications in power distribution, power generation, and propulsion. Research is focused on using carbon nanotubes.  The development of a room temperature, lightweight, low resistance conductor is of great interest to the Navy.


Areas of interest include development of an MVDC distribution system up to 12 kVDC to meet maxi­mum load demands; design of an appropriate in-zone distribution sys­tem architecture; development of high speed 1 kVDC and 12 kVDC solid state circuit protection devices that are ship ready, and advanced conductors capable of supporting power distri­bution.



Power Generation converts fuel into electrical power. A typical power generation module might consist of a gas turbine or diesel engine (prime mover), a generator (see rotating machine discussion below), a rectifier (either active or passive), auxiliary support sub-modules and module controls. Other possible power generation technologies include propulsion derived ship service (PDSS), fuel cells, or other direct energy conversion concepts.  Power generation concepts include 60 Hz wound rotor synchronous generator driven directly by a marine gas turbine (up to 30 MVA rating); commercially derived or militarized design variants of the above; and higher speed, higher frequency, high power density variants of the above with high speed or geared turbine drive.  NPES DC technologies permit prime movers and other electrical sources (such as energy storage) to operate at different, non-60Hz electrical frequency speeds, improving survivability, resiliency, and operational availability.  Energy storage that is fully integrated with the power generation can enable uninterrupted power to high priority loads, mission systems that reduce susceptibility, and damage control systems to enable enhanced recoverability.


The specific design issues to be considered include fuel efficiency, module level power density, machine insulation system characteristics, size, weight, cost, maintainability, availability, harmonic loading, voltage, power, system grounding approaches, fault protection, response to large dynamic (step) or pulse type loading originated from ship propulsion or directed energy/electromagnetic weapons, interface to main or ship service bus, autonomy, limited maintenance, and commercial availability.  Navy interests are in the area of innovative approaches to power generation in the 5 to 30 MW range, utilizing gas turbines, diesel engines and other emerging power technologies that address challenges associated with achieving reduced fuel consumption, decreased life cycle and cost, support of ship integration, enable flexibility, enable power upgrades, and improved environmental compliance.  Near term Navy interest includes 10-30 MW (nominally 25 MW) output power rating and the power generation source able to supply two independent electrical buses (where abnormal conditions, including pulsed/stochastic loads, on one bus do not impact the other bus) at 12 kVDC (while also considering 6kVDC, 18kVDC, and 1 kVDC).  Enhanced fuel injection, higher operating temperatures and pressures, and optimized thermal management are critical for future prime movers. Advanced controls for increased efficiency, reduced maintenance, and increased reliability include implementation of digital controls; autonomous and unmanned power control; enhanced engine monitoring, diagnostics, and prognostics; and distributed controls. Advanced designs for increased efficiency include new applications of thermodynamic cycles such as Humphrey/Atkinson cycle for gas turbines and diesels and Miller cycle for diesel.   


The Navy is interested in developing a knowledge bank of *********** on potential generator sets, generator electrical interface requirements, and the impacts of those requirements on generator set performance and size, as a logical next step from the Request for *********** released under N00024-16-R-4205.  A long-term goal for this effort is to maximize military effectiveness through design choice and configuration option flexibility when developing next-generation distribution plants.  The power generation source should fit withi...

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